Hypodermic Needle theory:
- PASSIVE audiences are “injected” with ideologies, beliefs, messages, values
- E.g. of a passive audience is children. Our behaviour is easily and directly shaped by these media messages.
2 step flow:
- Assumes a more active audience who will discuss the media text with each other.
- It still assumes that we can be passive.
- Proposes that we are influenced by opinion leader e.g. parent, doctors, experts.
- Opinion leaders are someone you trust to know a lot about a specific topic.
- Media Product- decoder – opinion leader
PROS AND CONS
- Children are more vulnerable
- The audience has no role in the creation of meaning-there is textual determinism.
- Wherever they are in the world, the audience for a media text are all receiving exactly the same thing. That is the text is understood in the same way by anyone watching.
- Repeated exposure to a media message, will lead to desensitisation i.e. Audience becomes less sensitive.
- Even children get used to shocking things they see eventually because they are growing up surrounded by the media.
- Children are still shocked in what they say because they haven’t been as exposed to the media as adults.
Uses and gratification theory
- Looks at why the audience uses the media
- Assumes that audiences are active consumers- they are not passive
- Audience have variety of need that they gratify through the media.Uses of the media:
- We use the media as a diversion- take your mind off something else
- personal identity- to relate you self with situations or characters, or aspire to someone, as a form of comfort
- Personal Relationships- To be able to relate with people who also watch or read this particular thing (finding common ground)
- Surveillance- Commonly found in newspapers, news (to found out what’s happening in the world.
- Uses and gratification approach explores how and based on which motives recipients use the media as well as which gratifications are obtained thereat.
- There isn’t anything on their association with background noise (which people do use it for sometimes)
Reception theory (Stuart Hall)
- The audience do not passively accept a media text
- Hall proposes three difference audience readings:
- Dominant reading- Media text interoperated in the way intended by the producer.
- Negotiated Reading- Audience accepts some of the media text but not all aspects
- Oppositional Reading- Audience in conflict with the texts message.
- Audience readings of a media text depend on:
- Situated culture (background, upbringing, culture, lifestyle)
- Experience and knowledge
This is an example I have done by putting people in different categories stereotypically for the game GTA.
- It allows audiences to accommodate with different readings and have different opinions
- Not everyone in the same category in terms of e.g. age will have the same opinions, it depends on the actual person’s opinion and how they think.
- There are only 3 categories; there could be people who don’t fit into any of the three categories.